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Title: Code for: "A matter of flexibility: Changing outgroup attitudes through messages with negations"
Authors: Winter, Kevin
Scholl, Annika
Sassenberg, Kai
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: PsychArchives
Abstract: Scripts for: Winter, K., Scholl, A., & Sassenberg, K. (2020). A matter of flexibility: Changing outgroup attitudes through messages with negations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication.
Attitudes toward outgroups are an important determinant of peaceful coexistence in diverse societies, but it is difficult to improve them. The current research studies the impact of messages with negations on outgroup attitudes, more specifically on outgroup trust. All studies were preregistered. Using different target groups, Studies 1 and 2 provide evidence for the prediction that communicating negations (e.g., “they are not deceptive”) enhances outgroup trust (more so than affirmations, such as “they are reliable,” and no messages) among people who are initially low in outgroup trust. Three additional studies (Studies 3a, 3b, and 4), using both a causal chain approach and (moderated) mediation analysis, demonstrate that negations promote cognitive flexibility which in turn enhances outgroup trust among those initially low in outgroup trust. One final study suggests that these findings generalize to outgroup attitude change per se by showing that communicating negations also results in more moderate attitudes when the dominant initial attitude is positive (Study 5: high warmth) rather than negative (Studies 1–4: low trustworthiness). As such, communication that negates people’s initial outgroup attitudes could be an effective (previously discounted) intervention to reduce prejudice in intergroup settings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved)
Citation: Winter, K., Scholl, A., & Sassenberg, K. (2020). Code for: "A matter of flexibility: Changing outgroup attitudes through messages with negations". PsychArchives.
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SYNTAX_Study1.sps3,06 kBSPSS syntax fileDownload
SYNTAX_Study2.sps2,96 kBSPSS syntax fileDownload
SYNTAX_Study3a.sps965 BSPSS syntax fileDownload
SYNTAX_Study3b.sps1,16 kBSPSS syntax fileDownload
SYNTAX_Study4.sps2,42 kBSPSS syntax fileDownload
SYNTAX_Study5.sps2,87 kBSPSS syntax fileDownload
SYNTAX_Study1.txt3,06 kBTextDownload
SYNTAX_Study2.txt2,96 kBTextDownload
SYNTAX_Study3a.txt965 BTextDownload
SYNTAX_Study3b.txt1,16 kBTextDownload
SYNTAX_Study4.txt2,42 kBTextDownload
SYNTAX_Study5.txt2,87 kBTextDownload

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